Sunday, August 16, 2015

Proxy Flow Re-use using maven plugin

Proxy Flow re-use is quite commonly encountered during API proxy development with Apigee.

For example, consider request flows with two kinds of Authentication (Basic & OAuth) mechanisms. The two request flows differ in Auth policies used - one uses Basic Auth and other uses OAuth; assuming the rest of request flow is exactly same including fault handling and logging.

In such cases, it's desirable to have a common proxy flow that can reused in both the request flows.

At the moment, Apigee Edge does not support flow re-use out of the box. This can done using maven plugin which I implemented - Proxy Dependency Maven Plugin .The plugin works like macro pre-processor that substitutes common flows during build time.

The link provided above, documents in detail the working of the plugin and the pattern for modelling re-use in proxies.

Monday, August 25, 2014

Gotcha: 2 Preflow Tags

Proxy or Target XML file can contain multiple PreFlow tags. Though XML allows it syntactically - semantically this does not work as expected. The validation is currently missing.


In case of multiple PreFlow tags, only the policies in the last (textually last) PreFlow tag is executed. The policies in other PreFlow tags are silently ignored. Deployment and runtime validation are missing for this error. In the example above - only assign_referrer_id policy will be executed.

Monday, August 18, 2014

Handling for CLASSIFICATION_FAILURE (404 Handling)

One of the production checklist items while setting up Apigee for production is handling a invalid API call.  The call typically results in CLASSIFICATION_FAILURE error.  This is a stackoverflow question related to issue.

Its always best to have a catch all URL in production environment of Apigee.  You can create brand new proxy with a base path  / . This proxy can have a single flow that returns the custom message using an assign message policy. This catch all proxy is like a custom 404 handler in web-servers.

Monday, June 16, 2014

stdout in Javascript Callout

Writing to console in Javascript callout is useful in some scenarios of debugging.  The print function can be used for writing to stdout.

print('Hello World From Javascript Callout');

would output the message to stdout.

stdout can be seen in trace when you click on the Javascript policy that logged to console.

Monday, June 9, 2014

Flow variables in URL of HTTPTargetConnection

HTTPTargetConnection with URL can be  used in two places as of now - service callout and target endpoint. Following are the configuration differences in both usages.

Service Callout

Target Endpoint


  • Protocol must be static in both cases it cannot be part of a flow variable used. The validation of requirement is done during deployment time.
  • Host ( in above example) must be static in case of target endpoint. This cannot be part of flow variable; making host part of the flow variable causes failure with error code 500 even though the validation during deployment succeeds.

Monday, June 2, 2014

Handling 404 backend response

In REST API interactions its common to obtain and handle 404 response. The behaviour is used to support create or update scenario for a resources. Check if the resource exists, if it does update it using PUT otherwise create it using POST verb.

404 response from backend is treated as an error in Apigee and such a response results in execution of the fault flow instead of the response flow. The method of dealing with such a scenario is to use the property of target endpoint properties. Following is an example configuration of target end point to deal with 404 as a success response.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<TargetEndpoint name="billing">
            <Server name="BillingTarget">
            <Property name="">1XX,2XX,3XX,404</Property>

The success codes property above ensures that default behaviour is retained in addition to treating 404 as a success code. This configuration will ensure response flow of the proxy will be executed in case of 404 response too. Appropriate action can be take in the response flow by checking the status code value.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Functionality Provided By Apigee

Following is a simple concise summary (which i like!!) on what Apigee provides by my colleague Michael Bissell on stack overflow.


Where to put functionality in the flow is usually contextual but there are a few easy things to put in every proxy:
1) Key Management: Using Apigee to manage your API keys and mint your access tokens gives you a couple things; first line of defense for unauthorized apps and automatic analytics about what the developer is doing (getting a high error rate from one app? reach out to them and help them solve their problem proactively).
2) Basic Security Policies: Once you know the App is allowed to access your API there are some simple security policies that should be run on the Apigee layer. Payload enforcement (JSON and XML threat protection, regular expressions to block things like SQL injection or other invasive code). You can also set quotas based on the API Key (different developers getting different levels of access based on the products you associate with their keys). You also want to set spike arrests to keep your API traffic from overwhelming your target server.
3) Response Management: Make sure you strip out unnecessary response headers (cookies, server versions, etc) that aren't relevant to the API Contract. No need to tell your app developers about your target architecture, but it's sometimes hard to suppress those headers from application servers. You may also want rules to block unexpected responses from the target server (500 errors that may contain stack traces for example).
4) Caching: The ability to cache responses in Apigee drives a lot of the rest of "where to do it" questions. But being able to return a Cached response from Apigee can decrease your latency by hundreds of milliseconds improving your transactions per second and your developer/consumer satisfaction. The question now becomes how fine-grained you can get your cached response without having to go to the target server.
Beyond that it becomes "Where is it easiest and most efficient to do a task?" Things like JSON to XML, for example, are easy in Apigee, but they're easy in other platforms that may be running on your backend server, too.